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Spanish Songs of Robert Schumann and Maurice Ravel

Contents of this page:

Robert Schumann (1810 - 1856) / Emanuel Geibel (1815 - 1884):

Notes about Schumann, Geibel and Spanish Songs

from Spanisches Liederspiel, Op. 74, 1849

assorted Spain-inspired songs:

Maurice Ravel (1875 - 1937) / Paul Morand (1888 - 1976):

Notes about Ravel and his Song Cycle

Don Quichotte à Dulcinée, 1932-33

  1. Chanson romanesque
  2. Chanson épique
  3. Chanson à boire

For more information:

  • Performing editions of the music
  • Text and translation sources
  • Bibliography
  • Web sites with more information

  • Robert Schumann (1810 - 1856) / Emanuel Geibel (1815 - 1884):

    Notes about Schumann, Geibel and Spanish Songs

    Romanticism evolved in the late 18th century in revolt against the establishment ideal of reason-based Enlightenment. In the mid-19th century, a second flowering took place in reaction to the conformist complacency of the post-Napoleonic Biedermeier era. The Romantics sought to establish a better world than the harsh reality around them. Two types of journeys figured prominently in their search: the journey inward into the world of emotion and imagination (as in Dichterliebe) and the journey outward into the foreign and exotic.

    Spain was one favorite destination, with its relative isolation from the European mainland, its mix of Moorish and Christian, its tales of knights and damsels in fortress towers, its Mediterranean languor and its alluring women. There were German evocations of Spain as far back as Mozart's Sevilla in Le nozze di Figaro and Don Giovanni, but it was the poet Emanuel Geibel (1815 - 1884) who stoked popular German enthusiasm for things Spanish. Geibel never traveled to Spain, but began his poetic career by translating Greek and Latin poetry into German, then was drawn to volumes of Spanish folk poems. He assembled a series of translations and pastiches from these books into a bestselling volume titled Volkslieder und Romanzen der Spanier (Folk-songs and Romances of Spain, 1843). Poems from this collection would be republished in a second volume called Spanisches Liederbuch (Spanish Song-Book, 1850) and published in collaboration with Paul Heyse.

    Schumann drew inspiration from Geibel's poetry at several stages in his career. In the song year of 1840, he set three original poems as his Op. 30, writing the swaggering Der Hidalgo on the day he received consent to marry his beloved Clara Wieck. Nine years later, he invented the genre of vocal chamber music by selecting poems from Volkslieder und Romanzen der Spanier and setting them for ensembles of one to four singers with piano. The two cycles were called the Spanisches Liederspiel (Spanish Song-play, Op. 74) and Spanische Liebeslieder (Spanish Love Songs, Op. 138). The program has several excerpts from these cycles, including a song in which the urgency of a midnight getaway is sublimated into a placid duet for tenor and baritone. We will have a quartet in which the village gossips mercilessly tease a young girl for falling in love for the first time, and a second quartet which describes the girl's defiant response. The song Flutenreicher Ebro features a lovestruck lad, asking the river in the manner of Schubert's miller lad if his beloved still remembers him.

    Like Geibel, Schumann gained his "knowledge" of Spain from books and published music rather than from first-hand experience. There are bolero rhythms, off-beat accents and other "Spanish" devices, though sometimes the music seems to owe more to Chopin polonaises, Liszt rhapsodies and Italian ballads than real Spanish music. But the idea took root; Johannes Brahms would enlarge on the Liebeslieder form and Hugo Wolf would publish his own Spanisches Liederbuch based on the Geibel and Heyse translations.

    There was one authentic source that Schumann drew on: Seville native Manuel García (1775 - 1832) had a peripatetic career as an operatic tenor (famed for his "authentic" depictions of the Sevillanos Count Almaviva and Don Giovanni), composer, impresario and singing teacher (his techniques remain fundamental to this day). García created a furor with the Paris premiere of his one-act monologue opera El poeta calculista in 1809. Its hit aria was Yo que soy contrabandista, which may have been the first portrayal of an unrepentant outlaw as a Romantic hero, free of the constraints of conventional society. The aria inspired Franz Liszt to write a piano rondo, figured in books by Victor Hugo and George Sand, and was interpolated into Gioacchino Rossini's opera, Il barberiere di Siviglia (for which García originated the role of Almaviva). Georges Bizet's opera Carmen is filled with Andalucian smugglers and borrows tunes from García operas. Schumann created a German-language recollection of "Contrabandista," which shows the differences between aria and art song.


    Note: Hyperlinks in the German text show places where Schumann altered Heine's texts either by changing words or repeating phrases (leave the cursor over the link to pull up a balloon that describes the difference). Hyperlinks in the English text show explanations of some concepts long forgotten in the 21st century, or show links to web sites with useful information.

    Aus Spanisches Liederspiel, Op. 74

    Words: Emanuel Geibel (1815 - 1884)
    Source: Volkslieder und Romanzen der Spanier
    im Versmaße des Originals
    , 1843.

    From Spanish Song-Play

    Music: Robert Schumann (1810 - 1856)
    Source: Spanisches Liederspiel, Op. 74, March 24-29, 1849.

    #5: Es ist verraten

    Original title: Ser de amor esa pasion
    Im Bolerotempo
    Daß ihr steht in Liebesglut,
    Schlaue, läßt sich leicht gewahren, 
    denn die Wangen offenbaren,
    was geheim im Herzen ruht.
    Stets an Seufzern sich zu weiden,
    stets zu weinen statt zu singen,
    wach die Nächte hinzubringen
    und den süßen Schlaf zu meiden;
    das sind Zeichen jener Glut,
    die dein Antlitz läßt gewahren,
    und die Wangen offenbaren,
    was geheim im Herzen ruht.
    Daß ihr steht in Liebesglut,
    Schlaue, läßt sich leicht gewahren, 
    denn die Wangen offenbaren,
    was geheim im Herzen ruht.
    Liebe, Geld und Kummer halt' ich
    für am schwersten zu verhehlen,
    denn auch bei den strengsten Seelen
    drängen sie sich vor gewaltig.
    Jener unruhvolle Mut
    läßt zu deutlich sie gewahren,
    und die Wangen offenbaren,
    was geheim im Herzen ruht.

    It is revealed

    Original author: Unknown
    In the tempo of a bolero
    That you are in love's fervor,
    O sly ones, is easy to perceive,
    for your cheeks reveal
    what secrets rest in your heart.
    Always glorying in your own sighs,
    always weeping instead of singing,
    staying awake nights,
    and avoiding sweet sleep,
    these are signs of that fervor
    that your face makes plain,
    and your cheeks confess
    what secrets rest in your heart.
    That you are in love's fervor,
    O sly ones, leaves itself easily noticed,
    for your cheeks reveal
    what secrets rest in your heart.
    I hold love, money and worry
    as the hardest to conceal,
    for even in the sternest souls,
    they push themselves out powerfully.
    That wholly restless mood
    leaves itself revealed too clearly,
    and your cheeks confess
    what secrets rest in your heart.

    #2: Intermezzo

    Original title: Si dormís, doncella
    Nicht schnell
    Und schläfst du, mein Mädchen,
    auf! öffne du mir;
    denn die Stund' ist gekommen,
    da wir wandern von hier.
    Und bist ohne Sohlen,
    leg' keine dir an;
    durch reißende Wasser
    geht unsere Bahn.
    Durch die tief tiefen Wasser
    des Guadalquivir;
    denn die Stund' ist gekommen,
    da wir wandern von hier.


    Original author: Gil Vicente (c.1465 - c.1536)
    Not fast
    And do you sleep, my girl?
    Up!  Open for me!
    For the hour is come
    that we wander from here.
    And are you without shoes?
    Put none on,
    through raging waters
    goes our path.
    Through the deep, deep waters
    of the Guadalquivir,
    for the hour is come
    that we wander from here.

    #9: Ich bin geliebt

    Original title: Dirà cuanto dijere
    Sehr lebhaft
    Mögen alle bösen Zungen
    immer sprechen, was beliebt:
    wer mich liebt, den lieb' ich wieder,
    und ich weiß, ich bin geliebt.
    Schlimme, schlimme Reden flüstern
    eure Zungen schonungslos,
    doch ich weiß es, sie sind lüstern
    nach unschuld'gem Blute bloß.
    Nimmer soll es mich bekümmern,
    schwatzt so viel es euch beliebt;
    wer mich liebt, den lieb' ich wieder,
    und ich weiß, ich bin geliebt.
    Zur Verleumdung sich verstehet 
    nur, wem Lieb' und Gunst gebrach,
    weil's ihm selber elend gehet
    und ihn niemand nimmt und mag.
    Darum denk' ich, daß die Liebe, 
    drum sie schmäh'n, mir Ehre gibt;
    wer mich liebt, den lieb' ich wieder,
    und ich weiß, ich bin geliebt.
    Wenn ich wär' aus Stein und Eisen,
    möchtet ihr darauf bestehn,
    daß ich sollte von mir weisen
    Liebesgruß und Liebesflehn.
    Doch mein Herzlein ist nun leider 
    weich, wie's Gott uns Menschen gibt,
    wer mich liebt, den lieb' ich wieder,
    und ich weiß, ich bin geliebt.

    I am Beloved

    Original author: Unknown
    Very lively
    Let all evil tongues
    always say what they wish.
    Whoever loves me, I love in return,
    and I know I am beloved.
    wicked, wicked whispering,
    your tongues merciless,
    but I know that you are merely greedy
    for innocent blood.
    Never will it worry me,
    gossip as much as you please.
    Whoever loves me, I love in return,
    and I know I am beloved.
    Slander is only the refuge of
    he whom love and favor have abandoned,
    for he himself is so wretched
    and nobody chooses or likes him.
    That's why I think that love,
    which they revile, gives me glory.
    Whoever loves me, I love in return,
    and I know I am beloved.
    If I were made of stone and iron,
    you would prefer that I carry on,
    that I should reject
    love's greeting and love's plea.
    But my little heart is now unfortunately 
    tender, as God gives to us people.
    Whoever loves me, I love in return,
    and I know I am beloved.

    Robert Schumann / Emanuel Geibel: Assorted Songs Inspired by Spain

    Der Hidalgo

    Words: Emanuel Geibel
    Source: Gedichte, Erstes Buch, 1834 - 1835.
    Etwas kokett
    Es ist so süß, zu scherzen
    mit Liedern und mit Herzen
    und mit den ernsten Streit.
    Erglänzt des Mondes Schimmer,
    da treibt's mich fort vom Zimmer,
    durch Platz und Gassen weit;
    da bin zur Lieb' ich immer
    wie zum Gefecht bereit.
    Die Schönen von Sevilla
    mit Fächer und Mantilla
    blicken den Strom entlang;
    sie lauschen mit Gefallen,
    wenn meine Lieder schallen
    zum Mandolinenklang.
    Und dunkle Rosen fallen
    mir vom Balkon zum Dank.
    Ich trage, wenn ich singe,
    die Zither und die Klinge
    vom Toledan'schen Stahl.
    Ich sing' an manchem Gitter 
    und höhne manchen Ritter
    mit keckem Lied zumal.
    Den Damen gilt die Zither,
    die Klinge dem Rival.
    Auf denn zum Abenteuer!
    Schon losch der Sonne Feuer
    jenseits der Berge aus;
    der Mondnacht Dämmrungsstunden,
    sie bringen Liebeskunden,
    sie bringen blut'gen Strauß;
    und Blumen oder Wunden
    trag' morgen ich nach Haus.

    The Gallant

    Music: Robert Schumann
    Source: Drei Gedichte von Emanuel Geibel, Op. 30, No. 3, 1840.
    Somewhat flirty
    It is so sweet, to play
    with songs and with hearts
    and with a serious fight!
    The glimmer of the moon's beams
    drives me forth from my room,
    through squares and wide streets,
    then for love I am always
    as ready as for combat!
    The beauties of Seville,
    with fan and mantilla,
    gaze along the stream,
    they listen with pleasure
    when my songs sound
    to the mandolin's twang.
    And dark roses fall
    to me from the balconies as thanks.
    I carry, when I sing,
    a zither and a sword
    of Toledo steel.
    I sing at many trellises
    and scoff at many knights
    with cheeky songs in particular.
    For the ladies is meant the zither,
    the sword for the rival.
    Off, then, for adventure!
    Already the sun's fire is extinguished,
    gone beyond the mountain.
    The moon-night, twilight hours,
    they bring love's tidings,
    they bring bloody garlands,
    and blooms or wounds
    I will carry in the morning back home.


    Words: Emanuel Geibel
    Source: Volkslieder und Romanzen der Spanier, 1843.
    Nicht schnell
    Flutenreicher Ebro,
    blühendes Ufer,
    all' ihr grünen Matten,
    schatten des Waldes,
    fraget die Geliebte,
    die unter euch ruhet,
    ob in ihrem Glücke
    sie meiner gedenket!
    Und ihr tauigen Perlen,
    die ihr im Frührot
    den grünenden Rasen
    bunt mit Farben schmückt,
    fraget die Geliebte,
    wenn sie Kühlung atmet,
    ob in ihrem Glücke
    sie meiner gedenket!
    Ihr laubigen Pappeln,
    schimmernde Pfade,
    wo leichten Fußes
    mein Mädchen wandelt,
    wenn sie euch begegnet,
    fragt sie, fragt sie,
    ob in ihrem Glücke
    sie meiner gedenket!
    Ihr schwärmenden Vögel,
    die den Sonnenaufgang
    singend ihr begrüßet
    mit Flötenstimmen,
    fraget die Geliebte,
    dieses Ufers Blume,
    ob in ihrem Glücke
    sie meiner gedenket!


    Original poem: Ebro caudolose (unknown poet)
    Source: Spanisches Liebeslieder, Op. 138, No. 5, April 1849.
    Not fast
    Flood-rich Ebro,
    blossoming shore,
    all you green meadows,
    shades of the woods,
    ask my beloved,
    who rests under you
    if in her bliss
    she remembers me!
    And you dewy pearls,
    which at dawn's light
    bedeck the greening lawn,
    bright with colors,
    ask my beloved
    when she breathes the cool air,
    if in her bliss
    she remembers me!
    You leafy poplars
    and gleaming trails,
    where lightfootedly
    my maiden wanders,
    when she comes to you,
    ask her, ask her
    if in her bliss
    she remembers me!
    You swarming birds,
    who at sunrise
    sing it welcome
    with flute-like voices,
    ask my beloved,
    that shore's blossom,
    if in her bliss
    she remembers me!

    Yo que soy contrabandista

    Words and Music: Manuel del Pópulo Vicente
    (1775 - 1832)
    Allegretto poco
    Yo que soy contrabandista
    y campo por mi respeto,
    a todos los desafío
    pues a nadie tengo miedo.
    Ay, ay, ay!  Jaleo muchachas.
    ¿Quien me merca algun hilo negro?
    Mi caballo está cansado
    y yo me marcho corriendo.
    Ay, ay, que viene la ronda
    y se movió el tiroteo.
    Ay, ay, caballito mío,
    caballo mío careto.
    Ay jaleo que nos cojen
    ay sácame de este aprieto.
    Ay caballito, jaleo,
    ay caballito, jaleo.

    I who am a smuggler

    Source: Polo from El poeta calculista,
    an opera in one act, 1805.
    A little fast-ish
    I who am a smuggler
    and do as I please,
    I challenge all,
    because I fear noone.
    Hey, hey, hey!  Make merry, girls!
    Who will buy my black thread?
    My horse is tired
    and I leave, running.
    Hey, hey!  the patrol is coming,
    and that would set off a shoot-out.
    Hey, hey, my little horse,
    my ugly mug of a horse.
    Hey, go and take us away,
    hey, get me out of this jam.
    Hey, little horse, let's go,
    hey, little horse, let's go!

    Spanische Romanze

    Words: Emanuel Geibel
    Source: Gedichte, 1840.
    Ich bin der Contrabandiste,
    weiß wohl Respekt mir zu schaffen.
    Allen zu trotzen, ich weiß es,
    furcht nur, die hab' ich vor keinem.
    Drum nur lustig, nur lustig!
    Wer kauft Seide, Tabak!
    Ja wahrlich, mein Rößlein ist müde,
    ich eil', ich eile, ja eile,
    sonst faßt mich noch gar die Runde,
    los geht der Spektakel dann.
    Lauf nur zu, mein lustiges Pferdchen,
    ach, mein liebes, gutes Pferdchen,
    weißt ja davon, mich zu tragen!

    Spanish Romance

    Original poem: Yo que soy contrabandista
    Source: Spanisches Liederspiel, Op. 74, Anhang,
    March 24-29, 1849.
    I am the smuggler,
    and know well how to earn respect.
    To defy all is what I know,
    fear I have for no one.
    So just be merry, just merry!
    Who will buy my silk?  Tobacco?
    Yes truly, my little steed is tired,
    I hurry, I hurry, yes, hurry,
    or else I'll be seized yet by the patrol,
    wouldn't that be a sight?
    Run fast then, my merry horse,
    ah, my dear, good little horse,
    you know well how to carry me away!

    Maurice Ravel (1875 - 1937) / Paul Morand (1888 - 1976): Don Quichotte à Dulcinée

    Notes about Ravel and his Song Cycle

    Joseph Maurice Ravel was born on March 7, 1875 in Ciboure in the deep southwest of France, but grew up and spent most of his life in and around Paris. His father was a Swiss engineer, his mother was Basque and the two met in Madrid. As a result, Spanish images and Spanish dance rhythms figure in Ravel's music throughout his compositional career. His final composition was a cycle of three songs commissioned as part of a film soundtrack based on the tale of Don Quixote, to be directed by the great G.W. Pabst and starring Feodor Chaliapin. Sadly, the dementia that claimed Ravel's life kept him from finishing the project, but the songs produced are among his best loved.

    Each of the songs is based on a Spanish dance rhythm. The Chanson romanesque draws on the guajira, an Andalucian 6/8 form that Ravel's mother sang to lull him to sleep as a boy, and a rhythm that turns up everywhere in Ravel's music. The Chanson épique uses the stately 5/4 zortzico, a Basque rhythm which in Ravel's hands seems to anticipate the Louanges from Olivier Messiaen's Quartet for the End of Time just 12 years later. The cycle concludes with the Chanson à boire in the swift, jagged and irregular rhythms of the Aragonese jota. Paul Morand's poems and Ravel's music skillfully evoke the knight-errant of La Mancha, comically earnest, foolishly bold, devoted and devout, slightly off his rocker, and eternally Romantic.

    Don Quichotte à Dulcinée

    Words: Paul Morand (1888 - 1976)

    Don Quixote to Dulcinea

    Music: Maurice Ravel (1875 - 1937), 1932-33

    Chanson romanesque

    Si vous me disiez que la terre
    a tant tourner vous offensa,
    je luis dépêcherais Pança:
    vous la verriez fixe et se taire.
    Si vous me disiez que l'ennui
    vous vient du ciel trop fleuri d'astres,
    déchirant les divins cadastres,
    je faucherais d'un coup la nuit.
    Si vous me disiez que l'espace
    ainsi vidé ne vous plaît point,
    chevalier dieu, la lance au poing,
    j'étoilerais le vent qui passe.
    Mais si vous disiez que mon sang
    est plus à moi qu'à vous ma Dame,
    je blêmirais dessous le blâme
    et je mourrais vous bénissant.
    O Dulcinée.

    Romantic Song

    dedicated to Robert Cousinou
    If you were to tell me that the earth
    with all its turning, offended you,
    I would dispatch (Sancho) Panza there;
    you would see it fixed and silent.
    If you were to tell me that you grew annoyed
    of a sky too flowery with stars,
    destroying the divine order,
    I would sweep the night away with one blow.
    If you were to tell me that space
    thus emptied, did not please you,
    knight of God, lance in hand,
    I would stud stars into the wind as it passes.
    But if you said that my blood
    is more mine than yours, my Lady,
    I would blanch at the reproach,
    and I would die, blessing you.
    Oh, Dulcinea.

    Chanson épique

    Molto moderato
    Bon Saint Michel qui me donnez loisir
    de voir ma Dame et de l'entendre,
    bon Saint Michel qui me daignez choisir
    pour lui complaire et la défendre,
    bon Saint Michel veuillez descendre
    avec Saint Georges sur l'autel
    de la Madone au bleu mantel.
    D'un rayon du ciel bénissez ma lame
    et son égale en pureté
    et son égale en piété
    comme en pudeur et chasteté:
         Ma Dame.
    (O grands Saint Georges et Saint Michel)
    L'ange qui veille sur ma veille,
    ma douce Dame si pareille
    a Vous, Madone au bleu mantel!

    Epic Song

    dedicated to Martial Singher
    Good Saint Michael, who gives me the liberty
    to see my Lady and to hear her,
    good Saint Michael, who deigns to choose me
    to please her and to defend her,
    good Saint Michael, I pray you to descend
    with Saint George upon the altar
    of the Madonna of the blue mantle.
    With a beam from heaven, bless my sword
    and its equal in purity
    and its equal in piety
    as in modesty and chastity:
         my Lady!
    (O great Saint George and Saint Michael!)
    the angel who watches over my watch,
    my sweet Lady who is like
    you, Madonna of the blue mantle!

    Chanson à boire

    Foin du bâtard, illustre Dame,
    qui pour me perdre à vos doux yeux
    dit que l'amour et le vin vieux
    mettent en deuil mon cœur, mon âme!
    Je bois à la joie!
    La joie est le seul but
    où je vais droit...
    lorsque j'ai bu!
    Foin du jaloux, brune maîtresse,
    qui geind, qui pleure et fait serment
    D'être toujours ce pâle amant
    qui met de l'eau dans son ivresse!
    Je bois à la joie!
    La joie est le seul but
    où je vais droit...
    lorsque j'ai bu!

    Drinking Song

    dedicated to Robert Bourdin
    To hell with the bastard, illustrious Lady,
    who, to lose me in your sweet eyes
    says that love and old wine
    will bring to grief my heart and my soul!
    I drink to joy!
    Joy is the sole aim
    that I pursue ...
    when I've drunk!
    To hell with the jealous fool, dark mistress,
    who whines, who weeps and makes oaths
    to always be the pale lover
    who puts water into his intoxication!
    I drink to joy!
    Joy is the sole aim
    that I pursue ...
    when I've drunk!

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    Performing Editions of the Music

  • Friedländer, Max, ed. German Lieder Medium/Low Voice, Part II. CD-ROM. King of Prussia, PA: Theodore Presser, Co., 2000.
    An on-line version of the aforementioned Friedländer edition in medium voice can be browsed at the on-line music library at the Indiana University School of Music.

  • unknown editor. Spanisches Liederspiel, Op. 74 for One and Several Singers and Piano. Frankfurt: C.F. Peters. EP 2394.

  • Alonso, Celsa, ed. Manuel García: Canciones y Caprichos Líricos. Madrid: Instituto Complutense de Ciencias Musicales, 1994.

  • unknown editor. Maurice Ravel: Collected Songs, Medium/Low Voice. Paris: Éditions Durand, distributed by Hal Leonard Corporation, 2004.
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    Text and Translation Sources

  • Geibel, Emanuel. Volkslieder und Romanzen der Spanier im Versmasse des Originals. Berlin: Alexander Duncker, 1843.
  • Schanze, Helmut and Schulte, Krischan, eds. Robert Schumann: New Edition of the Complete Works. Series VIII, Vol. 2: Literary text used in solo songs, part songs, and works for vocal declamation. Mainz: Schott Music International, 2002.
  • Glass, Beaumont. Schumann's Complete Song Texts. Geneseo, NY: Leyerle Publications, 2002.

  • Lied and Art Song texts to Spanisches Liederspiel (Emily Ezust)
  • Lied and Art Song texts to Don Quichotte à Dulcinée (Emily Ezust)
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    Recommended Reading

  • Fischer-Dieskau, Dietrich (trans. Reinhard G. Pauly). Robert Schumann, Words and Music: the vocal compositions. Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1988.
    A biography of Schumann with a special emphasis on all of his vocal output (songs, operas and oratorios), written with surprising depth of insight by one of Schumann's greatest interpreters.

  • Moore, Gerald. Poet's love: the songs and cycles of Schumann. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1981.
    A song-by-song analysis of Schumann's songs, taken in order from the Peters edition of complete songs. The book along with the Fischer-Dieskau biographical study offers invaluable advice on practical aspects of performance from the most important song accompanist of the 20th century. This is essential reading for the prospective performer of these cycles.

  • Radomski, James. Manuel García, 1775-1832: chronicle of the life of a bel canto tenor at the dawn of romanticism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
    A detailed account of the life of one of the most seminal figures of late Romanticism that you've never heard of. Radomski chronicles the details of García's life from his beginnings in Seville to his death in Paris and discusses his life, teaching and music.

  • Bernac, Pierre. The Interpretation of French Song. New York: W.W. Norton, 1978.
    An essential reference on French song, with short written introductions, texts and translations, hints on the art of French pronunciation and performer's notes from one of the most important French singers of the 20th century.

  • Gartside, Robert. Interpreting the Songs of Maurice Ravel. Geneseo, NY: Leyerle Publications, 1992.
    An edited set of the complete texts to all of the songs of Ravel (alas, except for Don Quichotte à Dulcinée because the copyright remains in doubt), with IPA transcriptions of the texts, a word-for-word translation, a more poetic translation of all the texts, and further valuable notes on background and interpretation from a Bernac pupil.

  • Orenstein, Arbie, ed. A Ravel Reader: correspondence, articles, interviews. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990.
    A collection of clippings and comments about Ravel's music, much of it from the composer himself, with valuable background notes about the composer and his compositions.
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    For more information:

    About Romanticism:

  • An Overview of Romanticism (Paul Brians, Washington State University)
  • Introduction to Romanticism (Lilia Melani, Brooklyn College)
  • Romanticism links, electronic texts and home pages (Michael Garner, UPenn)
  • About Emanuel Geibel and Robert Schumann:

  • Sleeve Notes to the Hyperion Schumann Complete Songs volume with the Spanisches Liederspiel and Spanisches Liebeslieder (Graham Johnson; requires subscription)
  • About Maurice Ravel and Don Quichotte:

  • Maurice Ravel home page
  • Answers.com page about Don Quichotte à Dulcinée
  • Martial Singher recordings (the baritone who was the dedicatee of the Chanson épique and made the first recording of the cycle)
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    Dr. Jimbob's Home -> Classical Music -> Spanish Songs of Robert Schumann and Maurice Ravel

    Last updated: February 26, 2007 by James C.S. Liu.

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